Monday, 28 October 2013

Beyond El Dorado

For centuries Europeans were dazzled by the legend of a lost city of gold in South America. The truth behind this myth is even more fascinating. El Dorado – literally “the golden one” – actually refers to the ritual that took place at Lake Guatavita, near modern Bogotá.
The British Museum has created an exhibit featuring 200 artefacts from Bogota’s Museum of Gold. This exhibition looks at the reality behind the stories that excited the European imagination from the 16th century onwards, telling of a lake into which a ruler entirely covered in gold — the El Dorado or Golden One — made offerings of gold and emeralds.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/art/art-reviews/10379433/Beyond-El-Dorado-Power-and-Gold-in-Ancient-Colombia-British-Museum-review.html
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Laguna de Guatavita is located in the municipality of Sesquilé, in the Cundinamarca Department of Colombia, 35 miles north-east of Bogotá.

Laguna de Guatavita was one of the sacred lakes of the Muisca, and a ritual conducted there is thought to be the basis for the legend of El Dorado. The lake is where the Muisca celebrated a ritual in which the Zipa (named "El Dorado" by the Conquistadores) was covered in gold dust, then venturing out into the water on a ceremonial raft made of rushes, he dived into the waters washing off the gold.
Afterward, trinkets, jewelry, and other precious offerings were thrown into the waters by worshipers.
Conquistadores Lázaro Fonte and Hernán Perez de Quesada attempted to drain the lake in 1545 using a "bucket chain" of labourers. After 3 months, the water level had been reduced by 3 metres, and only a small amount of gold was recovered.

In 1580 Antonio de Sepúlveda had a notch cut deep into the rim of the lake, which managed to reduce the water level by 20 metres, before collapsing and killing many of the labourers. Various golden ornaments, jewellery and armour were found. Sepúlveda died a poor man, and is buried at the church in the small town of Guatavita.

In 1898 the lake was successfully drained by means of a tunnel that emerged in the centre. The water was eventually drained to a depth of about 4 feet of mud and slime. This made it impossible to explore, and when the mud had dried in the sun, it set like concrete. A haul of only £500 was found, and subsequently auctioned at Sothebys of London.

The Colombian government has disallowed any more draining attempts.
Pre-Columbian Ecuador included indigenous cultures that developed for thousands of years before the ascent of the Incan Empire.
There are major archaeological sites in the coastal provinces of Manabí and Esmeraldas and in the middle Andean highland provinces of Tungurahua and Chimborazo. The archaeological evidence has established that Ecuador was inhabited for at least 4,500 years before the rise of the Inca.
The invasion of the Inca in the 15th century was bloody. Once over, the Incas developed an extensive administration and began the colonization of the region.