Bust of Claudius at the Naples National Archaeological Museum
|Claudius (1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54) was Roman emperor from AD 41 to 54. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul, the first (and until Trajan, only) Roman emperor to be born outside Italy. His maternal grandparents were Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, Augustus' sister, and he was the great-great grandnephew of Gaius Julius Caesar. Because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness as a child, his family ostracized him. Claudius's infirmity probably saved him from the fate of other nobles during the many purges of Tiberius and Caligula. He was not seen as a serious threat. His survival led to his being declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination. |
Tuesday, 28 May 2019
Monday, 27 May 2019
|"Golden Kingdoms: Luxury and Legacy in the Ancient Americas" was an exhibit at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2018. It brought together hundreds of luxury craft goods of the Incas, Aztecs and their predecessors. The exhibition included more than 300 objects from 52 institutions across the world.|
|The exhibit traces the development of goldworking from Peru in the south to Mexico in the north from around 1000 B.C. to the arrival of Europeans in the early 16th century.|
|Highlights include the exquisite gold ornaments of the Lord of Sipán, the richest unlooted tomb in the ancient Americas.|
Sunday, 26 May 2019
|Gold was considered to be the skin of the ancient Egyptian gods and their bones and were thought to be made of silver.|
At beginning of recorded history, silver may have been unknown to the ancient Egyptians. They could obtain gold and electrum, which was a natural alloy of silver and gold, from the mountains of the Eastern Desert and Nubia.
Early Egyptian language lacks a word for silver. They described it only as the "white metal", and when they did run across it, they seem to have regarded it as a variety of gold.
Silver diadem. The double uraei – two sacred cobras, protectors of royal power.
Solid silver casket of Psusennes I. 21st Dynasty who ruled from Tanis between 1047 – 1001 BC.
|When silver was introduced into Egypt, it probably was more valuable than gold. It was rare, and on lists of valuables, items of silver were listed above those of gold during the Old Kingdom.|
Jewelry made of silver was almost always thinner than gold pieces, as indicated by the bracelets of the 4th Dynasty queen Hetephere I, in contrast to the extravagance of her gold jewelry.
Two gold bracelets of Queen Hetepheres I.
|The rulers of the 21st and 22nd Dynasty, who were buried at Tanis used silver in their burials. Sheshonq II had a solid silver coffin with gilded details in the form of the hawk-god, Sokar.|
Silver could be stained black using sulphur. This was applied as decoration. Beaten into sheets, silver was used to plate copper and other materials, especially to obtain mirror surfaces.
|There is no evidence that the Egyptians themselves mined silver. From ancient records it is thought that silver was imported from Mesopotamia, Crete and Cyprus.|
A silver treasure found at the site of Tod comprised vessels likely made in Crete. The hoard dates to the reign of Amenemhat II who ruled during the 12th Dynasty. (1962 BC)
Silver mummy mask of Queen Malakaye (Egyptian Late Period)
|By the Middle Kingdom, silver was less valuable than gold. By this time a much better supply of the metal had developed.|
During the 12th Dynasty, silver acquired a value about half that of gold. By the 18th dynasty silver and copper had been established as a means of exchange. Copper was valued at about one-hundredth the value of silver.
Ptolemy II, 285-246 BC, silver dekadrachm
Silver Tetradrachm, Alexandria mint, dated 55/54 BC. Diademed head of Ptolemy I.
Friday, 24 May 2019
|The spectacular 1857-S Double Eagle, recovered in 2014 from the SS Central America set a record price for any 1857 San Francisco Mint $20 gold coin in a public auction conducted by Legend Rare Coin Auctions on May 16, 2019. The sunken treasure Double Eagle, graded PCGS MS67, sold for $282,000.|
Wednesday, 22 May 2019
|After coming to power, Sargon killed the king of Kish, and attacked Uruk. He captured Uruk and dismantled its famous walls. The defenders fled the city.|
Sumerian forces fought two pitched battles against the Akkadians and were routed. Sargon pursued his enemies to Ur before moving eastwards to Lagash, to the Persian Gulf, and then to Umma.
Uruk was renowned for its walls which were first built 4,700 years ago by the Sumerian King Gilgamesh, hero of the epic named after him.
|Sargon died around 2215 BC.|
|Sargon of Akkad was regarded as a model by Mesopotamian kings for two millennia after his death.||The Assyrian and Babylonian kings who based their empires in Mesopotamia saw themselves as the heirs of Sargon's empire. Akkadian influence was seen through trade throughout much of the known world from Eastern Europe to Northern Africa to India.|
Akkadian customs – language, religion, art, architecture – were the standard for almost two millennia until the Greeks and Persians established their own mighty empires.
Tuesday, 21 May 2019
|Pertinax (1 August 126 – 28 March 193) was a Roman military leader and Roman Emperor for the first three months of 193. He succeeded the insane Commodus to become the first emperor during the Year of the Five Emperors.|
Born the son of a freed slave, Pertinax became an officer in the army. He was promoted to higher-ranking positions in both the military and political spheres, leading to the rank of provincial governor and urban prefect. He was a member of the Roman Senate. Following the death of Commodus, Pertinax was acclaimed emperor.
|Didius Julianus||Pertinax attempted to institute several reforms during his short reign of 86 days. One of those reforms, the restoration of discipline among the Praetorian Guards, led to conflict that cost Pertinax his life. The Praetorian Guard expected a generous donativum on his ascension, and when they were disappointed, agitated until he produced money, selling off Commodus' property. He was assassinated by the Guard on 28 March 193. After his death, the Praetorians auctioned off the imperial title, which was won by the wealthy senator Didius Julianus, whose reign would end on 1 June 193 in death.|
|Pertinax gold is rare and valuable. Gold aureus of Pertinax. EF $56,525 in 2017.|