Thursday, 30 December 2021

Santorini - Thera

Researchers have presented evidence of a catastrophic tsunami that followed the eruption of Thera. They excavated at the archaeological site of Çesme-Bağlararası, located in the resort town of Çesme on Turkey’s Aegean coast and more than 100 miles north-northeast of Santorini. Found was a first-of-its-kind articulated skeleton of a human (and his dog) believed to have been killed by the tidal wave following the volcanic eruption that devastated the Aegean island. Due to calibrated radiocarbon ages found within the tsunami deposit, researchers say the skeletal remains date no earlier than 1612 BCE.
Santorini, classically Thera, is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km (120 mi) southeast of Greece's mainland. It is the remnant of a volcanic caldera. The eruption of Thera was a major catastrophic eruption which is estimated to have occurred some 3,600 years ago at the height of the Minoan civilization. It was the largest volcanic event on Earth in recorded history. The eruption devastated the island of Thera.
New research into ancient tree rings from half a world away could settle lingering questions about when Thera erupted. Scientists believe the volcano erupted in the 16th century B.C., about 3,400 years ago, blowing some 24 cubic miles of rock and ash into the atmosphere. The eruption had long lasting and wide ranging effects. Researchers were able to determine colder years in the tree rings of Irish oaks and bristlecone pines in California. Scientists believe that the eruption happened between 1600 and 1525 B.C.
The eruption left a large caldera surrounded by volcanic ash deposits hundreds of metres deep and may have led to the collapse of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete.

There is evidence that the myth of Atlantis, described by Plato, is based upon the Santorini eruption.

Excavations starting in 1967 at Akrotiri made Thera the best-known Minoan site outside Crete. Only the southern tip of a large town has been uncovered, yet it has revealed complexes of multi-level buildings, streets, and squares with remains of walls standing as high as eight metres, all entombed in the solidified ash.

Pipes with running water and water closets found at Akrotiri are the oldest such utilities discovered. The advanced architecture, and the apparent layout of Akrotiri resemble Plato's description of the legendary lost city of Atlantis.
In 2015 a team of marine archaeologists discovered 39 ingots scattered across the sea floor near a 2,600-year-old shipwreck off the coast of Sicily. The ingots were made from orichalcum, a rare cast metal which ancient Greek philosopher Plato wrote was from the legendary city of Atlantis.

X-ray fluorescence analysis indicate the ingots were made from a mixture of zinc (15-20 per cent), charcoal and copper (75-80 per cent) with traces of nickel, lead and iron. Scholars suggest that orichalcum is a brass-like alloy, which was made in antiquity through the process of cementation, which was achieved through the reaction of zinc ore, charcoal and copper metal in a crucible.

Sunday, 26 December 2021

'Good Shepherd' Roman gold ring

The title given to Christ, the “Good Shepherd”, alludes to John (Jn 10:11): “I am the good shepherd, the true shepherd, who lays down his life for his sheep.”
Israeli researchers unveiled a Roman-era golden ring with a Christian symbol for Jesus inscribed in its gemstone, found in a shipwreck off the ancient port of Caesarea. The thick octagonal gold ring with its green gemstone has the figure of the "Good Shepherd" in the form of a shepherd boy in a tunic with a sheep across his shoulders. The ring was found among a trove of third century Roman coins, as well as a bronze eagle figurine, bells to ward off evil spirits, pottery, and a Roman pantomimus figurine.
Due to its small size, the ring belonged to a woman.
See ----->Roman artifacts from the ancient port of Caesarea

Saturday, 25 December 2021

Otzi the 5,300-year-old Tyrolean Iceman Mummy

In 1991 a group of hikers in the mountains of Austria came across an awful sight: a frozen body was buried in the ice. That body belonged to a 5,300 year old man. Scientists have discovered some specific facts. When he was alive, he had parasites in his intestines, was lactose intolerant, and had been sick three times in the past six months.

A reconstruction of Otzi, based on forensics and 3D modeling.
He's older than the Giza pyramids and Stonehenge, Otzi the Tyrolean Iceman continues to teach us things. The latest study of the weapons he was found with reveals that Otzi was right-handed and had recently resharpened and reshaped some of his tools before his death. Otzi was shot in the back with an arrow and became naturally preserved in the ice. Otzi, his clothing and his tools were well-preserved. The arrowhead, embedded in his left shoulder, wasn't found until 2001. He would have bled out and died shortly after because it pierced a vital artery.
With goat-leather leggings and a brown bear fur hat, Otzi must have strutted the Alps with style. Otzi the Iceman left behind his leather-heavy wardrobe and a slew of his accessories when he died in the Italian Alps.

He was found with a very valuable copper ax. It is the only one of its kind ever found. During the Copper Age, copper axes were owned by men of high rank and buried with them. Copper was extremely valuable and a symbol of high status.
Otzi’s final meal was high in fat, with traces of red deer and ibex in his stomach along with einkorn wheat. When he died his stomach was full, meaning he ate shortly before he was attacked.
The Iceman has 61 marks on his body made by fine incisions into which charcoal was rubbed. His are the oldest tattoos known.

Thursday, 23 December 2021

Crusader Gold in Israel

A hoard of buried gold coins found in Apollonia National Park in 2012 by a joint team of archeologists from Tel Aviv University and the Nature and Parks Authority is one of the country's largest-ever such finds. The hoard of 108 gold coins were minted in Egypt about 250 years before being buried in the floor of a 13th century fortress at Apollonia Park, about 15 miles north of Tel Aviv.
The coins discovered in the fort date to the Fatimid empire in northern Africa, far older than the ruined fortress they were found in. The coins were minted in Tripoli and Alexandria.
Researchers believe the hoard was hidden to prevent Muslim conquerors from finding it. The Christian Order of the Knights Hospitaller ruled the fortress and the surrounding city.
The Order of the Knights of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, and the Hospitallers, were among the most famous of the Roman Catholic military orders during the Middle Ages. The excavations offered unique insight into Crusader fortifications in the Middle East. The layer of Crusader artefacts has lain nearly undisturbed since 1265. Muslim Arsuf was conquered by the Crusaders in 1101 and re-conquered by the Mamluks in 1265.

Baibars’ reign marked the start of an age of Mamluk dominance in the Eastern Mediterranean.
In March 1265, Mamluke Sultan Baibars stormed the city and captured it after 40 days of siege. The knights were annihilated. Baibars (1223 – 1 July 1277) was the fourth Sultan of Egypt from the Mamluk Bahri dynasty.

Tuesday, 21 December 2021

72 to 66 myo oviraptorosaur embryo

A 72 to 66 myo embryo found inside a fossilized dinosaur egg sheds new light on the link between the behavior of modern birds and dinosaurs. The embryo, dubbed Baby Yingliang, was discovered in Ganzhou, southern China and belongs to a toothless theropod dinosaur, or oviraptorosaur. Oviraptorosaurs are a group of feathered theropod dinosaurs, closely related to modern-day birds, known from the Cretaceous of Asia and North America.

Monday, 20 December 2021

The Monster of Troy

At the last moment Hercules arrives to slay the monster and rescue the princess.
A menacing creature lurks on an ancient Greek vase in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. The scene is on a Corinthian krater dating to around 550 B.C. It is the oldest illustration of the ancient legend of the Monster of Troy.
In Greek myth, a terrible sea monster suddenly appears on the Trojan coast, where it causes great destruction. To appease the beast, the king of Troy, Laomedon, sends his daughter Hesione as a sacrifice.
The vase shows Hesione and Hercules fighting the monster. Hesione throws rocks from a pile at her feet. Hercules shoots a volley of arrows, one of which has hit the monster’s chin.Hercules and the Princess of Troy (1965)
Some have suggested that the Monster of Troy resembles a Plesiosaur, a Mesozoic marine reptile. Plesiosaurs are amoung the largest marine apex predators in the fossil record.

Sunday, 19 December 2021


A hellhound is a supernatural dog in folklore. A wide variety of hellish supernatural dogs occur in mythologies around the world. Some European legends state that if someone stares into a hellhound's eyes twice or more, that person will surely die.

Hellhounds often have fire-based abilities and appearance. They are often assigned to guard the entrances to the world of the dead, such as graveyards and burial grounds, or undertake other duties related to the afterlife, such as hunting lost souls. In European legends, seeing a hellhound or hearing it howl is an omen or even a cause of death. They are said to be the protectors of the supernatural.
In Greek mythology the hellhound belonged to Hades, the Greek god of death and the underworld. It's name in Greek mythology is Cerberus. It has three heads and guards the gates of hell.

The Bearer of Death is a term often used in describing the Hellhound. Hellhounds are said to be as black as coal with a smell of burning brimstone. They leave behind a burned area wherever they go.

Hades with Cerberus - Pluto Carricci painting
Hellhounds of myth is common across Great Britain and Western Europe.

In southern Mexico and Central America folklore, the Cadejo haunts travelers who walk late at night.